September 5, 2003
Leading hydrologist Lu Qinkan has submitted a third petition to top authorities in Beijing, endorsed by 42 other Chinese experts, raising the alarm about three potentially disastrous problems related to the Three Gorges dam.
engineers, Prof. Lu warns against the plan to seal 22 outlets at the
base of the dam in 2005-06. He believes this will lead to a dangerous
accumulation of sediment in the Three Gorges reservoir and actually
worsen flooding problems in Chongqing.
"The outlets are crucial to the process of releasing silt from the
reservoir," insists Prof. Lu, now retired from his post as deputy chief
engineer in the Ministry of Water Resources and Electric Power.
Sediment accumulation raises a riverbed, causing floodwater to spill
out onto adjacent land. In addition to warning about this increased
risk of flooding, Prof. Lu picks holes in the calculations that
determined the level above which Chongqing residents could remain in
their old homes on the shores of the rising reservoir.
Those calculations were based on the water level that would be
expected in the reservoir during a flood of a size that normally occurs
once every 20 years, he writes. But typically in flood-control planning
on the Yangtze River, the more severe one-in-100-year flood is used to
determine the safe zone.
Prof. Lu suggests that many thousands of people in Chongqing, the
huge city at the tail of the reservoir, will find themselves living in
a high-risk, flood-prone area.
His analysis lends credence to the view that the official Three
Gorges resettlement figure of 1.13 million will prove to be a gross
underestimation of the number of people who need to be moved to safety.
"The guidelines and methods used to calculate the number of people
destined to be affected in Chongqing are neither legal nor reasonable,"
he concludes, and recommends "a new plan to resettle more migrants
should be considered."
In his latest petition, dated March 18, 2003, Prof. Lu also cites
the project’s vulnerability to military attack as another compelling
reason to keep the final water level in the reservoir lower than
He did not raise this security issue in his two previous petitions, which were submitted to Chinese leaders in March and June
2000. But in this document, written after the September 2001 terrorist
attacks in the United States, he does address the hideous possibility
of an attack on the world’s biggest dam, located in a densely inhabited
part of the world’s most populous country.
Keeping the "normal pool level" of the Three Gorges reservoir at 156
metres above sea level "will result in less damage and loss if the
worst-case scenario [of a dam burst] does occur," he writes. The
current plan is to raise the reservoir to 175 metres in 2009.
In his two earlier petitions, Prof. Lu also urged that the reservoir
be kept at 156 metres for a lengthy evaluation period. This would allow
time to monitor potentially hazardous impacts of the project, such as
the build-up of sediment on the reservoir bed.
In fact, this was official policy at the outset of construction in
1993, when there were no plans to raise the reservoir level to 175
metres before 2013.
However, by 1997, dam officials appear to have discarded this more
cautious approach in order to maximize the project’s power output. The
Three Gorges reservoir, which was filled to 135 metres in June of this
year, is now scheduled to rise to 156 metres in 2006, and to 175 metres
three years later.
In his third petition, Prof. Lu warns against repeating the
calamitous mistake made in the late 1950s by the builders of the
Sanmenxia dam on the Yellow River, who ignored plans that called for
silt-discharging tubes to be constructed near the base of the dam.
Sanmenxia was completed in 1960, but by the third year of operation
five billion tons of sediment had collected in its reservoir,
waterlogging farmland and threatening the major city of Xian with
disastrous flooding. Sanmenxia had to be rebuilt at enormous expense.
In her book Mao’s War against Nature,
American University professor Judith Shapiro writes: "The dam was
repeatedly reconstructed with tubes at the base to increase silt
discharge capacity, but in 1969, again there were floods in Xian.
Eventually, the dam was so pierced with holes that it became virtually
worthless for either flood control or electricity generation."
Twenty-two bottom outlets have been built into the Three Gorges dam
at an elevation of 56 metres above sea level. They lie below the dam’s
23 sluice gates, which are at 90 metres above sea level.
Rather than permanently sealing the bottom outlets with concrete as
planned, Prof. Lu advises that these low-elevation tunnels should be
kept fully open during the summer flood season to help discharge the
large amount of sediment that is carried by onrushing floodwater.
"It is clear that bottom outlets are important for flushing out
silt," he writes. "And it is very difficult to reopen them once they
Project officials counter that four more megadams that are planned
for the upper reaches of the Yangtze will help block some of the silt
that now flows toward the Three Gorges project. And they are concerned
that the structural integrity of the dam could be undermined if the
bottom outlets are not sealed.
Prof. Lu predicts that with the reservoir kept at 175 metres,
sediment accumulation will raise the river and force as many as 200,000
more people on the Yangtze’s main channel to move, as well as others
living along tributaries. And Chongqing, located more than 600
kilometres upstream of the dam, will face severe flooding and
In Damming the Three Gorges,
a critique published by Probe International of the Canadian-backed
feasibility study carried out for the dam in the 1980s, U.S.
hydrologist Philip Williams writes: "The Yangtze is not only a river of
water, it is also a river of sediment. The flow of the Yangtze carries
with it the fifth-largest sediment discharge of any river in the world."
On the Three Gorges scheme, he concludes that: "The type of
operation and design proposed to minimize sedimentation has not been
successfully demonstrated on such a large dam project. … The only
previous attempt to manage sediment flows of this magnitude was at the
Sanmenxia dam on the Yellow River, which is widely acknowledged outside
China to have been a costly failure due to unanticipated sedimentation
The Three Gorges project, he writes, is "a gigantic experiment in river management." For the full text of Lu Qinkan’s March 2003 petition, see Keep the reservoir level at 156 metres.
Categories: Three Gorges Probe