China Energy Industry

Hydropower development on the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River is an illegal project

China’s new Five-Year plan (2021-2025) has given the green light to build dams on the lower reaches of Yarlung Zangbo, the upper stream of the Brahmaputra River in Tibet before it flows into India. The dams are located in a core part of the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon national nature reserve – an area the People’s Republic of China, by its own rules, has deemed protected from such projects.

Published by Yibao China (a Chinese e-journal for political commentaries) on March 22, 2021. See the publisher’s website for the original version of this report: https://yibaochina.com.

Chinese hydrology expert Wang Weiluo looks at hydropower plans for China’s “natural museum”.

Summary

The construction of a hydropower project in the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon with three times the installed capacity of the Three Gorges Project violates the Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Nature Reserves. The Chinese government is clamoring to rule the country according to law, but it is brazenly doing illegal things.

On March 12, 2021, Xinhua News Agency officially released the full text of the “14th Five-Year Plan and the Outline of Long-Term Goals for 2035”. “Hydropower Development on the Lower Yarlung Zangbo River” appears in the second section “Expanding Investment Space” in Chapter 14 “Accelerating the Cultivation of a Complete Domestic Demand System”. The hydropower development project on the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River was officially included in the 14th Five-Year Plan of the Communist Party of China as a specific project to expand investment space.

The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council have always emphasized the rule of law. But the key to China’s problem is that there are laws that are not abided by and law enforcement is not strict! In particular, the central government does not comply with laws and law enforcement is lax! Played a very bad lead! As for the hydropower development project on the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River, the central government made the law. The State Council passed the Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Nature Reserves on September 2, 1994; The Medog National Nature Reserve was expanded and renamed the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve; the offender was the central government. In March 2021, the National People’s Congress passed the “14th Five-Year Plan” and the 2035 long-term goal outline “, “Hydropower Development on the Lower Yarlung Zangbo River” was included in the “14th Five-Year Plan”.

According to illegal facts, the hydropower development project on the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River is located in the core area of ​​the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon. The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is a national nature reserve. According to Article 32 of the Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Nature Reserves, “no production facilities shall be constructed in the core areas and buffer zones of nature reserves”. The construction of a hydropower project in the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon with an installed capacity three times that of the Three Gorges Project violates the “Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Nature Reserves.” The Chinese government must immediately stop the hydropower development project on the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River!

Chinese scientists once praised the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon: “The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is a complete natural museum. The diversity of natural gene pool, she has concentrated more than half of the biological species on the earth, is the most promising area for the development and utilization of biological resources in China, and is an ideal place to save and breed endangered species. Geological traces revealed by the Grand Canyon This fully confirms the theory of continental drift and the history of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The mountain peaks, developed glaciers, deep canyons, moist moisture, active landforms, and abundant species cannot coexist anywhere on earth. The natural museum here is the palace of natural science. The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is the most magnificent, most seductive, and most shocking natural and cultural scenic spot on earth. The rocks of the Grand Canyon come from the center of the earth and are colorful and completely record the Indian continent The epoch-making process of collision with the Eurasian continent has constructed a rock column map of the earth’s development history. The lithosphere of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is completely exposed here, and humans can see the state of the earth’s deep parts here. “The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon, she is a wonderful creation in nature, a treasure of mankind, and unique in the world. The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon does not need to be awakened, let alone be changed. The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon must not be destroyed by a large hydropower and water conservancy project.

The location of the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon. Source: as shown by the watermark on the bottom right-hand corner.
Yarlung Zangbo Great Turn. Source: Web screenshot.
Snow-capped glaciers at the Yarlung Zangbo turn. Source: Web screenshot.
Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve. Source: Web screenshot.

1. HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT ON THE LOWER REACHES OF THE YARLUNG ZANGBO RIVER IS INCLUDED IN THE 14TH FIVE-YEAR PLAN OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA

On March 12, 2021, Xinhua News Agency officially released the full text of the “14th Five-Year Plan and the Outline of Long-Term Goals for 2035”. “Hydropower Development on the Lower Yarlung Zangbo River” appears in the second section “Expanding Investment Space” in Chapter 14 “Accelerating the Cultivation of a Complete Domestic Demand System”. The hydropower development project on the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River was officially included in the 14th Five-Year Plan of the Communist Party of China as a specific project to expand investment space.

Yarlung Zangbo River. Source: screenshot from the Internet. Note: The southern Tibet in the picture is the actual control area of ​​India, which is Arunachal Pradesh. The power plant of the hydropower project on the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River is directly behind China’s actual control line. The departure point of the Yarlung Zangbo River marked by China is at the junction of the southern border of the southern Tibet region and the Yarlung Zangbo River in the picture. The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve defined by China is part of the actual control area of ​​India.

Simply put, the downstream hydropower development project of the Yarlung Zangbo River is the construction of a giant hydropower station in the Yarlung Zangbo River Grand Canyon with an installed capacity of three times the Three Gorges Project. The construction of this project will complete the comprehensive strategic control of the Yarlung Zangbo River’s water resources.

According to the information provided by Yong Yechen, the right to develop the hydropower project on the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River has fallen into the hands of the Three Gorges Group. Yong Yechen speculated that the downstream hydropower development project of the Yarlung Zangbo River will be implemented in conjunction with the Hongqi River water diversion project, and that part of the water will be transferred to Xinjiang or other places through the Hongqi River. The single-unit capacity of the hydro-generator set to be used in the project is 1 million kilowatts, and the Baihetan project built by the Three Gorges Group also uses similar hydro-generator sets. Due to the large investment funds and seismic geological risks faced by the project, the Three Gorges Group will work together with SDIC, Huadian or Huaneng. The Three Gorges Group focuses on hydropower projects on the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River, and has also received strong support from the Tibet Autonomous Region government. On November 7, 2020, Zizala, Deputy Secretary of the Party Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Chairman of the Autonomous Region, investigated the layout of the project in Milin and Medog counties of Nyingchi City. He inspected the site selection of the hydropower development project on the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River and listened to the report on the progress of the planning. On January 20 this year, Zizala delivered a government work report at the Fourth Session of the Eleventh People’s Congress of the Tibet Autonomous Region. He mentioned in many places the extremely great significance of hydropower development in the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River.

2. YARLUNG ZANGBO GRAND CANYON NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE

The hydropower development project on the lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River is located in the Yarlung Zangbo River Grand Canyon, which is a national nature reserve in China.

A nature reserve refers to an area established in accordance with the law to protect the ecological environment, geological structure, water resources and other natural complexes of biodiversity. In the nature reserve, various human activities will be restricted to varying degrees to ensure that the protected objects in the nature reserve maintain their natural development conditions. The earliest nature reserve established in the world was the Redwood Tree Reserve in the Simai Valley of California, USA, in 1864.

In terms of establishing nature reserves and legislating to protect nature reserves, China has not started too late. In 1956, China’s first nature reserve (Dinghushan Nature Reserve in Guangdong) was established. By 1965, China had 19 nature reserves, and by 1979, there were 59 nature reserves. In 1979, China promulgated the “Environmental Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China” (for trial implementation), which is considered to be an earlier country in the world that promulgated an environmental protection law. In May 1987, the Environmental Protection Committee of the State Council issued the “Outline of China’s Nature Conservation”. It is considered China’s first macro guidance document for the protection of natural resources and the natural environment. Attention and policy. On August 10, 1989, the State Land Administration and the State Environmental Protection Administration issued the “Notice on Strengthening Land Management in Nature Reserves.” By 1990, China had 606 nature reserves. On September 2, 1994, the State Council passed the “Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Nature Reserves,” and it became effective on December 1, 1994. This is the first special regulation for nature reserves in China.

The definition of nature reserves in Article 2 of the Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Nature Reserves is: the “natural reserves” referred to in these regulations refer to the natural concentrated distribution areas of representative natural ecosystems and rare and endangered species of wild animals and plants. , The land, terrestrial water body or sea area where the protection objects such as natural relics of special significance are located shall be designated according to law a certain area for special protection and management.

The People’s Republic of China divides nature protection into national nature reserves and local nature reserves. Nature reserves that have typical significance at home and abroad, have significant international influence in science, or have special scientific research value are listed as national nature reserves (Article 11 of the Regulations on Nature Reserves of the People’s Republic of China).

The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is a national nature reserve, and it should be a nature reserve with significant international influence or special scientific research value in science. On September 23, 1985, the Tibet Autonomous Region government approved the establishment of Medog Nature Reserve, with an area of ​​only 92,600 hectares. In 1996, Medog Nature Reserve was approved as a national nature reserve by the State Council. The area has expanded to 916,800 hectares. On April 27, 2000, the State Council agreed to expand the Medog National Nature Reserve and change its name to the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve. The main protection objects of the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve are mountain forest ecosystems and biodiversity resources, the world’s largest natural landscape of the Grand Canyon, and the most important water and gas channel environment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Zoning map of the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve. Source: Web screenshot.

According to the submitted documents and the approval of the State Council, the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve is located at the big bend of the Yarlung Zangbo River. It belongs to the four counties of Medog, Milin, Nyingchi, and Bomi in the Nyingchi region of Tibet, starting from Milin County in the north. Daduka Village (2880 meters above sea level), south to Baxika Village in Medog County (115 meters above sea level), the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is 504.9 kilometers long, with an average depth of 5000 meters, and the deepest point is 6009 meters. The Yarlung Zangbo River forms a horseshoe-shaped turn here. The specific geographic coordinates are located between 29°05′-30°20′ north latitude and 94°39′-96°6′ east longitude.

The establishment of nature reserves is the most important measure to protect the ecological environment of the Tibetan Plateau. Since 1992, the Chinese Communist government has issued more than a dozen white papers on the situation in the Tibet Autonomous Region, including the white paper “Ecological Construction and Environmental Protection in Tibet” released on March 10, 2003. In the white paper “Great Leaps: 60 Years of Democratic Reform in Tibet” released on March 27, 2019, it also stated that “the efforts to protect the ecological environment in Tibet have been continuously increased, the area of ​​ecological reserves has been continuously expanded, the biodiversity has been continuously restored, and the human settlement “Significant improvement in the environment” is touted as the main achievement. The establishment of nature reserves is the most important measure to protect the ecological environment of Tibet. More than one third of the area of ​​Tibet is nature reserves. The white paper said: “Since the establishment of the first Everest Nature Reserve in 1988, Tibet has established 47 nature reserves of various types (11 at the national level). The total area of ​​the reserves is 412,200 square kilometers, which accounts for the total area of ​​the entire region. 34.35%”. In addition, “Tibet has 141 species of national and autonomous region key protected wild animals, 38 species of national key protected wild plants, 196 species of animals endemic to Tibet, 855 species of plants endemic to Tibet, and 22 species of birds endemic to Tibet.” Important ecosystems have been effectively protected. Among them, the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve is the national nature reserve with the highest ecological value and the largest area.

3. THE EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY OF THE YARLUNG ZANGBO GRAND CANYON IS ONE OF THE GREATEST SCIENTIFIC EVENTS OF THE 20TH CENTURY

The Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Association for Scientific Expeditions, and other units have conducted many multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary investigations in the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon area, and basically completed the background survey work, and completed the 1:100,000, 1:50,000 topographic aerial surveys. Surveying and mapping, research on the evolution of the lithosphere structure and geodynamics of the Grand Canyon, the dynamic mechanism of the deep state, formation and uplift process of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Grand Canyon area); 1:200,000 Bomi Tongmai sheet regional geological mapping, Chinese Academy of Sciences Qinghai-Tibet investigation The team also conducted investigations and studies in basic areas such as canyon geology, landforms, plants, animals, meteorology, hydrology, and glaciers, and obtained important results.

Through scientific investigations, the formation of the Grand Canyon was clarified. The crust of the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon has been uplifted rapidly in the past 3 million years, especially at a rate of 30 mm/year in the past 150,000 years, and there are asthenospheric mantle upwellings in this area. The adjustment of the lithospheric material and structure, which is characterized by mantle upwellings, has a significant effect on the long-scale restriction of the outer layer of the earth in the Grand Canyon. The glaciers in the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon are located in the Great Bend Canyon area with the Nanga Bawa Peak as the center. It is a glacier developed on the high mountains. At the same time, it also preserves the relics of ancient Podzangbo glaciers and moraine hills. The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is a huge arc-shaped trough that develops along the middle and lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River. It is not only a part of a deep fault that cuts through the crust (about 50 kilometers), but also a collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The boundary, the ground suture, is of the deep cut type. The width of the bottom of the valley is generally 100-200 meters, and the narrowest point is at the top of the big bend. Because the Nanga Bawa Peak (7782 meters) on the south side and the Jala Bailei Peak (7294 meters) on the north side are sandwiched, the two side walls stand , The width is only more than 70 meters.

Affected by the strong influence of the Indian Ocean’s warm and humid air flow along the water-gas channel northward to the plateau, the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve has developed China’s only tropical-based base zone, through mountain subtropical, mountain temperate zone and alpine frigid zone. Three-dimensional climate type, formed by low mountain tropical monsoon rain forest, mountain subtropical evergreen semi-evergreen broad-leaved forest, Zhongshan warm temperate evergreen coniferous forest, subalpine cold temperate evergreen coniferous forest, alpine sub-frigid shrub meadow, The world’s most complete vertical band spectrum of mountain ecosystems composed of alpine sub-frigid ice margins and extremely high mountain ice and snow. The reserve provides a good habitat for wild animals and is the most distinctive mountain biodiversity in the world One of the most abundant areas, known as “the natural museum of vegetation type” and “the gene bank of biological resources”.

According to the information available, there are 3768 species of vascular plants, 512 species of bryophytes, 686 species of macrofungi, and 209 species of rust in the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve. The above-mentioned biological groups accounted for 65% of the total number of vascular plants in Tibet, 65% of bryophytes, 78% of macrofungi, and 77% of rust fungi. There are 21 species of rare plants under national protection, named after Medog. There are more than 40 “model species” plants. Specifically include: Medog, Medog, oil melon, Himalayan yew, Spike cedar, Podocarpus, Medog fir, Medog Rhodiola, wild peony, Tibetan mulberry, apple ficus, palm, eucalyptus, Chinese Gentleman, wild loquat, Medog rhododendron and so on.

According to incomplete statistics, the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve has 63 species of mammals, 232 species of birds, 25 species of reptiles, 19 species of amphibians, and more than 2,000 species of insects. There are 18 species of wild animals under national first-level protection, and 29 species of wild animals under national second-level protection. The above-mentioned biological groups accounted for 50% of mammals, 49% of birds, 43.1% of reptiles, and 47.5% of amphibians in Tibet.

Various rare and economic animals in the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve include: Bengal tiger, bear monkey, long-tailed langur, jackal, black bear, brown bear, red panda, stone mink, big civet, civet, Jungle cat, golden cat, leopard cat, clouded leopard, leopard, tiger, wild boar, red deer, forest musk deer, black musk deer, red deer, tufted deer, takin, gazelle, goral, red goral, rock goat, golden eagle, jade belt sea Eagle, kite, sparrow hawk, sparrow hawk, great falcon, white-headed parrot, saker falcon, swallow falcon, gray-bellied pheasant, red-bellied pheasant, brown-tailed rainbow pheasant, peacock pheasant, blood pheasant, Tibetan horse chicken, Tibetan snow Chicken, pheasant quail, black pheasant, spoon chicken, brown-backed frog, crimson parrot, wedge-tailed green dove, spot-headed owl, short-eared owl, brown-necked hornbill, double-horned hornbill, solid color pecker, green throat Sunbirds, pythons, king cobras, crispy snake lizards, Medog winged insects and so on.

Chinese scientists believe that the exploration and discovery of the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is one of the greatest scientific events of the 20th century.

Chinese scientists proposed the following basis when establishing the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon:

The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is a complete natural museum. The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is called by scientists as the center of species origin and differentiation, the starting area of ​​climate and environmental evolution, and the natural gene pool of biodiversity. With more than half of the biological species on the earth, it is the most promising area for the development and utilization of biological resources in my country, and an ideal place to save and breed endangered species.

The geological traces revealed in the Grand Canyon fully confirm the theory of continental drift and the history of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The mountain clusters, developed glaciers, deep canyons, moist moisture, active landforms, and rich species are gathered here. It is a natural museum that cannot coexist anywhere on earth. It is a palace of natural science.

The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is the most magnificent, enticing, and stunning natural and cultural scenic spot on the planet. The rocks of the Grand Canyon come from the center of the earth and are colorful. It completely records the epoch-making process of the collision and drift of the Indian continent and Eurasia. A rock columnar map of the history of the earth’s development has been constructed. The lithosphere of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is completely exposed here, and humans can see the state of the deep part of the earth.

Some people use the ten words “high, strong, deep, moist, secluded, long, dangerous, low, strange, and beautiful” to summarize the landscape of the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon. For example, the long character, the Yarlung Zangbo River Grand Canyon is a continuous canyon. It bypasses Nanga Bawa Peak, which is longer than the Colorado Grand Canyon and is the longest canyon in the world.

Before the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon became a national nature reserve, the ecological environment here was severely damaged, such as the extensive felling of forest trees. After the establishment of the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve, logging bans have been implemented in the Grand Canyon today, deforestation has been stopped, and forest trees have been slowly restored. However, the ecological environment system of the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is particularly sensitive and fragile. The eastern end of the Himalayas is the region where glaciers melt and recede most rapidly in the Tibet Plateau. In recent years, under the influence of earthquakes, alpine moraines and landslides have fallen into the Yarlung Zangbo River several times, forming barrier lakes and then dam-breaking floods, which is very harmful. If it develops further and forms a glacier collapse, just like the Ali Glacier collapse in 2016, the glacier body slid from the mountain rushes into the Grand Canyon at a speed of several hundred kilometers per hour.

4. NO PRODUCTION FACILITIES SHALL BE BUILT IN THE CORE AREA AND BUFFER ZONE OF THE NATURE RESERVE

The destruction of biodiversity on the earth is regarded as one of the major crises that threaten the survival of mankind like asteroids hitting the earth and nuclear war. The biologist Edward Osborne Wilson described the loss of biodiversity as a “secret and huge” tragedy. It’s just that many people don’t fully realize the crisis facing human beings with the decrease of biodiversity.

In order to protect the ecological environment of biodiversity, people have introduced the concept of nature reserves. Nature reserves have played an important role in protecting biodiversity, natural landscapes and natural relics, maintaining national and regional ecological security, and ensuring sustainable economic and social development. In order to effectively realize the motherhood of nature reserves, Article 32 of the Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Nature Reserves clearly stipulates that “no production facilities shall be constructed in the core areas and buffer zones of nature reserves”. This is the strictest prohibition in the regulations, without exception.

The construction of a hydropower project in the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon with three times the installed capacity of the Three Gorges Project violates the Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Nature Reserves. The Chinese government is clamoring to rule the country according to law, but it is brazenly doing illegal things.

From the establishment of China’s first nature reserve in 1956 to 2021, it has been 65 years. By the end of 2016, China had established 2,750 nature reserves of different levels with a total area of ​​1,473,300 square kilometers, of which the land area of ​​nature reserves was about 1,428,800 square kilometers, and the land nature reserves accounted for 14.88% of the land area. In terms of quantity, China is already one of the countries with the largest area of ​​nature reserves in the world. However, China is the country with the most severe damage to the ecological environment in the world, and the country with the most damage to biodiversity.

Where is the reason?

The key to the problem is that there are laws that are not abided by and law enforcement is not strict! In particular, the central government does not comply with laws and law enforcement is lax! Played a very bad lead!

Legal maker, the Central Government, on September 2, 1994, the State Council passed the “Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Nature Reserves”;

Law enforcement, the central government, on April 27, 2000, the State Council agreed to expand the Medog National Nature Reserve and change its name to the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve;

Violators, the central government, in March 2021, the National People’s Congress passed the “14th Five-Year Plan and 2035 Long-Term Goals Outline”, and “Hydropower Development on the Lower Yarlung Zangbo River” was included in the “14th Five-Year Plan”.

According to the illegal facts, the Yarlung Zangbo River downstream hydropower development project is located in the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve. , No production facilities shall be constructed”.

The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is a complete natural museum. It is called by scientists as the center of the origin and differentiation of species, the starting area for climate and environmental evolution, and the natural gene pool of biodiversity. It concentrates more than half of the earth The biological species in my country are the most promising areas for the development and utilization of biological resources in China, and an ideal place to save and breed endangered species. The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon, she is an ingenious creation in nature, a treasure of mankind, and unique in the world. The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon does not need to be awakened, let alone be changed. The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon must not be destroyed by a large hydropower and water conservancy project.

REFERENCES AND INFORMATION

Environmental Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China

Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Nature Reserves

China Nature Conservation Program

Notice of the General Office of the State Council on Relevant Issues Concerning the Expansion of the Medog National Nature Reserve and its Change to the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve

The “14th Five-Year Plan” and the outline of long-term goals for 2035

“Ecological Construction and Environmental Protection in Tibet” White Paper

“Great Leap: 60 Years of Democratic Reform in Tibet” White Paper

Morning News: Yarlung Zangbo River Grand Canyon Ecological Report: The snow cover in the mountains has been significantly reduced, July 3, 2011

Yang Yong: Challenges facing Yarlung Zangbo River hydropower development-Hydropower projects on the Yarlung Zangbo River and its tributaries may threaten its inherently fragile ecological environment, March 5, 2014

Cat League CFCA: ​​Will the hydropower station on the Yarlung Zangbo River wipe out the last tiger in Tibet? December 16, 2020

Gao Jixi: The 70-year development history and effectiveness of China’s nature reserves, China Environmental Management, April 16, 2020

Baidu Encyclopedia’s information about the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve

Wikipedia information about the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve

And other materials, articles, surveys, travel records, etc.

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